Hot! VMware Certified Professional 5 Tips – 5

Identify capabilities of hw versions

  • virtual hw features include efi and bios, available virtual pci slots, max number of cpus, max memory
  • features correspond to the physical hw available on the esxi host on which you create the vm
  • when you create a vm you can accept default hw version, which corresponds to the host on which you create the vm, or earlier version
  • Indentify vmware tools device drivers:
    • enhance performance of the vm’s guest os. Installing vmware tools eliminates or improves these issues
      • low video resolution
      • inadequate color depth
      • incorrect display of network speed
      • restricted movement of mouse
      • inability to copy and paste and drag and drop files
      • missing sound
    • Vmware tools includes these components
      • vmware tools service
      • device drivers
      • vmware user process
      • vmware tools control panel
    • Vmware tools device drivers
      • device drivers can smooth mouse operations, make features such as folder sharing available, improve sound, graphics, and network performance
        • svga driver: virtual driver enables 32 bit displays, high display resolution, and significantly faster graphics
        • scsi driver
        • paravirtual scsi driver: for pvscsi adapters, enhances performance of some virtualization applications
        • vmxnet nic drivers
          • 2 and 3 improve network performance and replaces vlance driver
          • mouse driver
          • audio driver
          • kernel module for sharing folders
          • thinprint driver
          • memory control driver
          • modules and drivers that support making automatic backups, things like vss
          • vmciL vmci socket drivers, fast and efficient communication between vm’s
    • Identify methods to access and use a vm console
      • console in vsphere client and web client
      • but after guest os is installed it is better to choose a network protocol like rdp, ssh. To access a vm’s console in the web client you must install the client integration plug in
    • Identify vm storage resources
      • choose destination storage (nfs, rdm, vmfs)
      • can apply storage profile
      • choose to create a new virtual disk, existing virtual disk, rdm, do not create a disk
      • disk size capacity
      • disk provisioning
      • store with vm on specific datastore or datastore cluster
    • Place vm’s in selected esxi hosts/clusters/resource pools
      • can place vm in a cluster or on a host not in a cluster
      • on host/cluster page of the new vm wizard, select the host on the cluster where you want the vm
      • if resource pools are configure on the host, the resource pool page opens
    • Configure and deploy guest os into a new vm
      • in config, the guest os that you select affects the supported devices and number of virtual cpu’s available to the vm
      • new vm wizard does not install guest os
      • insert installation CDROM on disc of the guest os into the cdrom disk drive connected to the vm
      • power on vm and follow instructions by os vendor
      • rather than booting from a physical cdrom, can create iso image file. Sore iso on host machine or network drive, use config tool for vmware to connect the vm cd drive to the iso image file and turn on vm

 

  • Configure/modify disk controller for virtual disks
    • to access virtual disks, a vm uses virtual scsi controllers
    • each virtual disk that a vm can access through one of the virtual scsi controllers resides on the vmfs datastore, nfs, or raw disk
    • wizard pre selects the correct default controller based on the guest os selected
      • bus logic parallel
      • lsi logic parallel
      • lsi logic sas (hw version 7 or later)
      • vmware paravirtual (only hw version 7 or later)
  • Create/convert thin/thick provisioned virtual disks
    • you can change thick provisioned disks to think by selecting allocate commit space on demand
    • inflate vmdk thin disk in datastore browser by right clicking vmdk and inflate
  • Configure disk shares
    • if multiple vm’s access the same vmfs datastore and same lun, use disk shares to prioritize the disk access from the vm’s
    • right click vm edit settings
    • resources tab select disk
    • click shares column, change value to allocate # of shares of it’s disk bandwidth to the vm (low 500, normal 1000, high 2000) custom
    • disk shares are only relevant within a given esxi host. The shares assigned to vm’s on one host have no effect on vm’s on another host
    • shares control disk bandwidth
    • can limit IOPS
  • Install upgrade/update vmware tools
  • Install: installers for vmware tools are ISO image files
  • Upgrade: can do manually or configure vm’s to check for and install new versions of vmware tools
    • guest os checks the version when you power on the vm, status bar displays message when new versions are available
    • to install a vmware tools upgrade cam use same procedure for installing, just means installing newer version
    • with automatic upgrade, occurs when you power off or restart the vm
    • in client can go to vm, guest, install/upgrade vmware tools
  • Configure vm time synchronization
    • use either w32time or NTP as primary synchronization utility
    • could also use vmware tools periodic clock synchronization
  • Convert a physical machine using vmware converter
    • source: powered on physical or vm
    • destination: vm
    • start converter stand alone app, click convert machine, select source machine, choose local or remote machine
  • Configure/modify virtual cpu and memory resources according to app requirments
    • can configure 3 types of vm properties
      • hw
      • options
      • resources (cpu,memory,disk)
    • Cpu config
      • some actions require you to power off vm before changing settings
      • cpu socket, physical connection on computer motherboard that accepts a single physical cpu
      • core: one or more cores can exist on a single physical cpu
    • Smp
      • feature that enable a single vm to have multiple cores
    • Vm cannot have more virtual cpus than the number of logical cores on the host. Number of logical cores is equal to the number of physical cores if hyperthreading is disabled
    • CPU hot plug option lets you add cpu resources for a vm while the vm is powered on
      • for best results use hw version 8
      • hot adding muticore cpu’s is only supported with 8
      • not all guest os support cpu hot add
    • In client
      • right click vm and edit settings, click hw, select cpus, select value from number of virtual sockets
      • select number of cores per socket
    • resulting total number of cores is a number equal to or less than the number of logical cpus on the host
    • user defined settings that affect cpu resource allocation
      • Limit: places a limit on the consumption of cpu time of a vm mghz
      • Reservation: guaranteed minimum allocation for a vm (MGHZ)
      • Shares: each vm is granted a number of cpu shares. The more shares a vm has, the more often it gets a time slice of a cpu when there is no cpu idle time
  • High, Normal,low  custom  4:2:1
    • Virtual memory
      • can add, change, config memory to enhance vm performance
      • some actions require that you power off the vm before changing settings
      • determines how much of the host’s memory is allocated to vm
      • virtual hw memory size determines how much memory does the vm have available to them
      • max memory size for vm hw version 8 is 1TB
      • memory hot add lets you add memory resources for a vm while the machine is powered on

 

  • modify/configure virtual nic adapter and connect vms to appropriate network resources
    • edit vm
    • hw tab
    • add Ethernet adapter
  • Determine appropriate datastore locations for vms based on application workloads
  • 3 options
    • store all vm files in same location on datastore
    • store all vm files in same datastore cluster
    • store vm config files and disks in separate locations
  • Administer vm’s and apps
    • Indentify files used by vm’s
    • .vmx, virtual machine config file
    • .vmxf, additional vm config file
    • .vmdk, virtual disk characteristics
    • .flat.vmdk, preallocated virtual disk
    • .nvram, bios efi config
    • .vmsd, vm snapshot database
    • .vmsn, virtual machine snapshot data file
    • .vswp, swap file
    • .vmss, suspend file
    • .log, log file
    • #.log, old vm log file entries
  • Identify locations for vm config files and virtual disks
    • by default all related vm files are in a folder (name of the folder is usually initial vm name), but vmdk can be created or relocated to other datastores
  • Swap file: from host: default: store in same directory as vm
    • store in datastore below
    • From vm: default of host or cluster
      • always store with vm
      • store in hosts’s swapfile datastore
  • Creating snapshot in different location than default vm
    • default created along vmx file (working directory)
  • Identify common practices for securing vm’s
    • install antivirus and stagger the scans to avoid contention
    • leave default copy/paste operations disabled
    • remove unnecessary hw devices
    • limit guest os system writes to host memory
    • configure vm logging levels
    • secure ft logging network traffic
  • Hot extend a virtual disk
    • increase size of vmdk of a running vm, but then extend guest filesystem in the vm, edit settings on vm, hard disk, type new size
  • Configure vm options
    • General options
      • View/modify name, check location of config file, change guest os type, can change guest os type when powered off
  • Vapp options
    • enable or disable vapp option. When vapp is enabled you can edit and configure IP allocation policy and other configs particular to vapps
  • Vmware tools
    • can run vmware tools scripts, can upgrade vmware tools during power cycling and synchronize guest with host
  • General advanced options
    • disable acceleration, enable logging, debugging, and stats
  • Power management
    • manage guest os power options
  • CPUID mask
    • hide or expose NX/XD flag, hiding the flag increase vmotion capability between hosts
  • Memory cpu hotplug
    • if guest os supports this option you can add memory and cpu resources to a vm while the vm is running. Memory hot plug is supported on 64 bit oses
  • Boot: set boot delay when powering on vm or to force bios setup and configure failed boot recovery
  • FC NPIV
    • control vm access to luns on a per vm basis
    • N port ID virtualization provides the ability to share a single FC HBA port among virtual ports each with unique identifiers
  • Configure vm troubleshooting options
  • turn on data logging by going to edit setting of vm, options tab, general
  • Assign a storage profile to vm
  • vm storage profiles list the storage capabilities that vm home files and virtual disks require to run the applications within the vm. The vm home files (vmx, vmsd, and vmdk can have separate profiles)
  • to apply profiles, edit settings of vm, and go to profiles tab. Associate vm with storage profile
  • right click vm and select edit settings, then profiles tab
  • can either select to propagate to virtual disks, or associate each virtual disk with the storage profile
  • Resource allocation
  • Shares: relative importance of a vm or resource pool. If vm has twice as many shares of a resource as another vm it is entitled to consume twice as much of that resource when 2 vm’s competing per resources
  • levels high, normal, low, custom
  • Reservation: specifies guaranteed minimum allocation for a vm. Vcenter, ESXi only lets you power on a vm if there are enough unreserved resources to satisfy the reservation of the vm (megahertz for cpu, megabytes for memory)

 

  • Limit: specifies an upper limit for cpu, memory, and storage I/O resources that can be allocated to a vm. Server never allocates more than the limit even if there are unused resources on the system

 

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